The Dreyfus Model of Skill Acquisition is a model of how learners acquired new skills through a combination of both formal instruction and opportunities for practicing. The model is based on four qualities that are tied to a mental function transitioning from recollection to awareness: 

Novice: Non-situational (memorizing rules and actions to follow)

Advanced beginner – Expert: Situational (able to recollect rules in new situations and create an appropriate response)

Novice-Advanced Beginner: Decomposed (unable to recognize what might change or go wrong – cannot analyze the situation and respond differently)

Competence-Expert: Holistic (able to piece together fragmented information and analyze a situation to understand the range of possible outcomes)

Novice-Competence: Analytical (decision-making takes time, will not be as confident or act instinctively)

Proficient-Expert: Intuitive (able to decide with confidence)

Novice-Proficient: Monitoring (not fully aware of all the complexities of the field, will need support in new or challenging situations regardless of experience)

Expert: Absorbed (ingrained knowledge and can approach any situation proficiently)

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